A Revolutionary War hero who served alongside Washington may have been intersex

Kazimierz_Pulaski

A recent research shows that Casimir Pulaski, who is one of the most famous generals in American Revolutionary War, have been identified to be intersex through DNA tests.

Pulaski was known as the “Father of the American Cavalry”, but new evidence suggests that the general may not have been male even he was regarded as a male before.

Pulaski was born into nobility in Warsaw in 1745, when the Poland was the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. There, he began his early military career before Benjamin Franklin ultimately recommended that he join the American Revolution. Pulaski reached Massachusetts in July 1777, and made a name for himself only a few months later at the Battle of Brandywine, where he was credited with leading a charge that helped save George Washington’s life and the Continental Army from a disastrous defeat.

Washington made Pulaski a general, and the young commander set to work remaking the Colonial cavalry. He died after being wounded at the Siege of Savannah, Georgia in 1779.

General_Pulaski_1931_Issue-2c

He stood 5-foot-1 to 5-foot-4, and appears in portraits with dark hair, a strong brow and a slender mustache.

Pulaski’s bones had been kept in a metal container underneath a monument in Savannah, Georgia.

When the monument was temporarily removed about two decades ago, researchers were able to exhume and study his skeleton.

The skeleton belonging to Pulaski’s appeared to be that of a woman in DNA tests. The scientists concluded that he may have been intersex.

Charles Merbs, who was a forensic anthropologist at Arizona State University said that he examined the bones with forensic scientist Dr Karen Burns from the University of Georgia.

“The skeleton is about as female as can be,” he said.

Recently, three other researchers proved that the skeleton’s DNA was “identical” to that of Pulaski’s descendant.

The UN says that up to 1.7% of the world’s population are born with intersex traits – meaning they are born with both male and female sex characteristics.

Dr Merbs says it is unlikely that Pulaski, who was raised male, ever believed he was female or intersex.

“Back in those days, they just didn’t know,” he said.

1280px-Thure_de_Thulstrup_-_L__Prang_and_Co__-_Battle_of_Gettysburg_-_Restoration_by_Adam_Cuerden

Advertisements

Interview of Harmony Day

 

Intro: I’m Peggy from Radio GAGA at Sydney TAFE Radio. It’s Harmony week this week at TAFE. There is a celebration for this festival. I interviewed Deb Smith at TAFE student association.

 

  1. Do you know what Harmony Week is?
  2. What do people do on Harmony Day?
  3. Why?
  4. What do you think about Harmony Week?
  5. What do you usually do on Harmony Week?

 

Outro: Harmony Day is an important celebration for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Orange is the color representing Harmony Day. People got together with friends and families and through schools and so on to celebrate it.

 

Reflection:

Deb Smith, who is the staff work for TAFE student association, organise the celebration of Harmony Day every year. She introduced the Harmony Day and her job. She was very pleased to have this interview. She showed me some documents and pictures about it. I learned a lot about the Harmony Day and the importance of it. She cooperated with me very well. During the interview, Deb Smith showed her professional and generous.

I think the preparation before the interview are very important. So it is very important to make a good preparation.

 

Career objectives

I hope to be the public relation officer of environmental protection organizations. I am passionate about environmental protection. Fortunately, Australia is an environmentally friendly country with many opportunities.  I love the beautiful earth. While the pollution issue becomes more and more serious, people are urged to protect our environment. More and more people are participating in the environment protection activities, such as the climate change strikes across Australia recently. Last month, tens of thousands of young Australians walked out of their classrooms to stage protests demanding action on climate change. When I was a student, I also paid much attention to the issues. I’m intended to do something to protect the environment. I would like to promote the value of environmental protection and find business opportunities in our society.

selective focus photography of sunflower
Photo by Brett Sayles on Pexels.com

I am studying journalism at TAFE at present, and I hope to have a more mature understanding of this field after I finish it. I have worked in journalism both in Australia and overseas. I have worked for newspapers and websites, collecting information, editing, translating, writing news, photographing, interview, managing information and so on. And I can speak English and Chinese. I can work in a bilingual environment.

 

I hope to be the representative of environmental protection organization in Australia in the future to promote the value of environmental protection and combine it with environmental protection and business opportunities.

 

In this role, I would work with various departments as well as communities and the government to promote the positive work of the organization and important environmental protection messages to internal and external stakeholders. Sometimes, I would help coordinate Public Relations opportunities in local initiatives and assist in corporate communication including event coordination.

 

The job will involve in a lot of requirements:

Firstly, highly effective written and verbal communication skills, good interpersonal skills and the ability to liaise with staff and community at all levels, including government representatives.

Secondly, good ability to implement and evaluate public relations campaigns.

Thirdly, demonstrated skills in organization and time management, as well as a demonstrated ability to be self-directed and innovative.

Fourthly, extensive experience in media relations through public relations.

Fifthly, experience developing internal and external publications.

 

For this, I need to improve a lot of work skills. Although, I’m not good at English like local people, especially spoken English. I need to make up for language weakness by strengthening my English learning and improving my ability. PR has certain requirements on people’s communication ability, social communication ability and management ability. In PR work, there are many multitasks, so I need to master certain management ability to manage time, work and interpersonal relationship well. I need to adjust myself to adapt the environment. Emotional intelligence and social skills are very important in PR work. It is very important to manage the emotion, as well. I need to improve my observation and analysis ability, as well as the ability to get along with people. I knew it would not be easy. I need to align myself with more opportunities and time. And I need to move beyond myself to align myself with my goals.

 

In order to achieve my career goals, I need to seek advice from professionals. For achieving the goals, I’m intended to ask advice from two media professionals. One is my supervisor Peter, and the other is a PR manager Carole.

Peter and Carole have more than a decade of experience in the media industry. They are not only professional, but also with a wise vision. They are very kind and patient. I will learn a lot from them.

 

Sydney Free Trees Giveaway- Reduce Carbon Pollution

Our planet’s gain is everyone’s gain.
Nature not only provides us with the things we need to live – from the air we breathe to the water we drink – but also makes our lives better. However, its growing loss puts this under threat.
Offsetting the amount which we are not able to avoid empowers us to take full responsibility for our carbon pollution, which is our contribution to climate change. In this context, we can plant trees.

flowers-2808594_960_720

The City of Sydney will give away 1,000 trees to our residents* on Saturday 30 March. And people can enjoy a sausage sizzle and chat to City staff about tips and advice on how to plant trees and general tree maintenance.

Where
Sydney Park, Alexandria
Website: https://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/live/trees/free-tree-giveaway

When
Saturday 30 March 2019 from 10am to 2pm, or until all the trees are gone.

What
Free trees

Who is eligible?
Trees are only available to eligible City of Sydney residents in: Alexandria, Annandale*, Barangaroo, Beaconsfield, Camperdown*, Centennial Park, Chippendale, Darlinghurst*, Darlington, Dawes Point, Elizabeth Bay, Erskineville, Eveleigh, Forest Lodge, Glebe, Haymarket, Millers Point, Moore Park, Newtown*, Paddington, Potts Point*, Pyrmont, Redfern, Rosebery*, Rushcutters Bay, St Peters, Surry Hills*, Sydney, The Rocks, Ultimo, Waterloo, Woolloomooloo and Zetland.
*Some streets are located in neighbouring council areas.

Why
Encourage residents to help government reach target of increasing the city’s tree canopy to 50 per cent by 2030.

How to get?
Please bring identification on the day that clearly shows current residential address. Each eligible household is entitled to up to 2 free trees, before they run out.

Theresa’s deal failed, Brexit delayed

Theresa May’s deal failed twice to get through The British Parliament. MPs are expected to have the third chance to approve it. If they do, Brexit will happen with a deal on 22 May. If they don’t, Parliament should consider alternative options to tell the EU what it wants to do next by the 12 April. If the UK then wants a longer delay, it would need to take part in the European elections in May.

Brexit (short of ‘British exit’) is the withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU). It was due to happen on 29 March. The deal was agreed by the UK and the EU in November 2018, needs approving by British MPs. However, they have voted against it twice so far. On 15 January they rejected the deal by 432 votes to 202, which was considered as the largest defeat for a sitting government in history. Then on 12 March, after Theresa May had gone back to the EU to secure further legal assurances, they rejected it again. One of the most controversial part of this deal is how to avoid the return of a physical border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland when it becomes the frontier between the UK and the EU.

A reader Russell said’ It’s their right for The British to make efforts to do what they want to do.’

Recently eleven senior cabinet members agreed that Theresa may should resign, and some candidates were considered to replace her. But the candidates denied later. They still spoke highly of Theresa.

More than one million people have demonstrated in central London to demand a second referendum on the Brexit deal. And millions of people signed up to keep Britain in the EU.

According to a survey released on March 25 by the CBI and accounting firm PWC. The 84 major financial firms surveyed saw their business decline at the fastest rate since September 2012. And the outlook for Britain’s financial sector is the worst since the 2008 financial crisis.

A critic Sam said:’ Brexit will not be solved even if the prime minister steps down. People call for a reversal of the referendum, which could lead to social unrest if they do. Brexit has not been yet in effect, and the impact is primarily preparatory and psychological. It will bring endless debate in Parliament, with many Brexit-related issues such as immigration and free trade agreements causing widespread controversy.’

39061122941_fd06b9c397_b

Reflection:

This is an important international news as Brexit will bring huge possible future impact. It has also caused a huge impact upon the world and a huge number of people have been involved in it. The result of this deal caused great conflicts among Teresa, the government and people. I combine the consequences of the Brexit deal, the history of the deal, process, government’s attitude, people’s attitudes and outlook of British in the article. I interviewed the two people in the story because their opinions would add valuable weight to the article.

 

Interview with Parker

Intro:  It rains in the morning in Sydney. I’m interested in the weather in Sydney and people’s feeling. I’m at TAFE talking with a student Parker about the weather.

  1. What do you think about the rain this morning?

  2. Does it often rain in Sydney?

  3. Do you like raining? Why?

Outro: The rain makes the student Parker happy. It doesn’t rain recently. She enjoys raining because it brings some benefits. And she thought it just like very cool music.

 

White ibis drinking

There was a white ibis drinking at the drinking water pool at TAFE Ultimo. It looked thirsty that it drank  a lot. It was so cute that attracted me when I made videos.  Just beside it, there was also a young lady sitting at the table drinking and watching. They looked so harmonious. With the permission of the lady, I recorded the interesting moment.